In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, capitalism moved from free competition to imperialism. The imperialist capitalist countries both increased exploitation of the domestic laborers and invaded and oppressed the people of the colonial peoples. The domination of imperialism makes the living standards of the working people of all countries become extreme. The conflict between the colonial peoples and colonialism is becoming more and more acute. The national liberation movement took place strongly in colonial countries.
With the victory of the Russian October Revolution in 1917, Marxism-Leninism from theory became reality, opening a new era – the era of revolution against imperialism, the era of national liberation. The Russian October Revolution set a shining example in the liberation of oppressed peoples.
The birth of the Communist International (III International) in March 1919 spurred the strong development of the international communist and workers’ movement. For Vietnam, the Communist International played an important role in spreading Marxism-Leninism and establishing the Communist Party of Vietnam.
In Vietnam, in 1858, the French colonialists launched an invasion attack and gradually established a dominating apparatus in Vietnam, turning a feudal country into a semi-feudal colony.
In terms of politics, the French colonialists imposed a policy of colonial rule, stripped of domestic and foreign power of the Nguyen feudal government; divided Vietnam into three countries: Tonkin, Trung Ky, Cochinchina and implemented in each period a separate rule. The French colonialists colluded with the landlord class to exploit economically and politically oppress the Vietnamese people.
In economic terms, the French colonialists implemented the policy of exploiting and appropriating land to establish plantations; investment in exploitation of natural resources; to build a number of industrial facilities, a system of roads and ports to serve the policy of colonial exploitation.
Regarding culture, the French colonialists thoroughly implemented the cultural policy of enslavement, causing low self-esteem and encouraging superstitious activities. All patriotic activities of our people are banned. They tried every way to cover up and prevent the influence of the advanced culture in the world from entering Vietnam and implemented a policy of stupidity to make it easier to rule.
Under the influence of colonial rule and economic, cultural, and educational policies, Vietnamese society has undergone a profound division. The landlord class colluded with the French colonialists to increase exploitation and oppression of peasants. However, within Vietnam’s landlords at this time there was a division. A part of landowners who were patriotic and hated the colonial regime participated in the struggle against the French in different forms and levels.
The peasantry class is the largest force in Vietnamese society, heavily oppressed and exploited by the colonialists and feudalists. The miserable plight of the Vietnamese peasantry increased their hatred of imperialism and feudalism, and their revolutionary will in the struggle to regain their land and the right to live freely.
The Vietnamese working class was born from the first colonial exploitation of the French colonialists, most of them came from the peasant class, had direct and close relations with the peasant class, were invaded by the imperialists. feudal oppression and exploitation.
The Vietnamese bourgeoisie is oppressed by the French bourgeoisie and the Chinese bourgeoisie competing, so the economic power and political position are small and weak, with a certain degree of nationalism and patriotism. . The petty bourgeoisie class in Vietnam includes students, intellectuals, self-employed people… life is precarious, prone to bankruptcy, becoming proletarians, patriotic, hating the empire, colonialists, etc. capable of absorbing progressive ideas from outside.
All classes and classes in Vietnamese society at this time had the status of people who lost their country and were to different degrees oppressed and exploited by the colonialists. Therefore, in Vietnamese society, in addition to the basic conflict between the people, mainly peasants, and the landlord and feudal classes, a conflict has arisen that is both fundamental and major and increasingly acute in life. national life, that is the conflict between the entire Vietnamese people and the invading French colonialists. The nature of Vietnamese society as a semi-feudal colonial society is posing two requirements: First, to drive away the French colonialists from invading, gain independence for the nation, and freedom for the people; Second, abolish the feudal system, gain democratic rights for the people, mainly land for farmers. In which, anti-imperialist and national liberation are the top tasks.
Before the invasion of the French colonialists, the patriotic movements of our people against the French colonialists took place continuously and enthusiastically, but they did not bring any results. Can Vuong movement – a patriotic movement following feudal ideology, led by the feudal class ended at the end of the 19th century with the uprising of Phan Dinh Phung (1896). By the beginning of the twentieth century, this trend was no longer typical. The peasant movement, typically Hoang Hoa Tham’s Yen The uprising, which lasted for decades, also failed in 1913. The patriotic movement in the direction of bourgeois democracy led by Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh. Leadership also fell into a deadlock. The Yen Bai uprising led by Nguyen Thai Hoc also failed.
The patriotic movements from the late 19th century to the early 20th century are the continuation of our nation’s indomitable patriotic tradition that has been forged through thousands of years of history. But due to lack of proper direction, lack of organization and necessary force, those movements failed in turn. The Vietnamese revolution was engulfed in a deep crisis about the way to save the country.
Nguyen Ai Quoc founded the Communist Party of Vietnam
In the midst of our nation’s crisis of national salvation, many contemporary patriots continued the old way of national salvation, on June 5, 1911 the young Nguyen Tat Thanh (ie Nguyen Ai Quoc Ho Chi Minh later) went out to find a way to save the country in a new direction. He has traveled through many countries of Europe, Africa, America and discovered the truth: Capitalism and colonial imperialism are the source of all sufferings of workers and working people in the government. as well as in colonial countries.
In 1917, he returned to France, went to Paris and in 1919 joined the French Socialist Party.
In June 1919, on behalf of the Vietnamese patriots, with the new name Nguyen Ai Quoc, he sent an 8-point claim to the Versailles Conference.
In July 1920, Nguyen Ai Quoc read Lenin’s “Outline on national and colonial issues” and from that thought, he found the right way to save the country for the Vietnamese people.
At the Congress of the French Socialist Party (December 1920), Nguyen Ai Quoc voted in favor of the Third International (the Communist International founded by Lenin) and participated in the founding of the French Communist Party, becoming the first Communist in the world. Vietnam’s first. It was an important historical event, not only Nguyen Ai Quoc from patriotism to the revolutionary theory of the era, Marxism-Leninism, but also marked an important turning point in the path of people’s liberation. Vietnamese people: to save the country and liberate the nation, there is no other way than the proletarian revolution.
From here, along with performing tasks for the international communist movement, Nguyen Ai Quoc promoted the spread of Marxism-Leninism, outlined the strategic direction of Vietnam’s revolution and prepared conditions for the establishment of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Communist Vietnam.
From 1921 to 1930, Nguyen Ai Quoc tried to spread Marxism-Leninism into the workers’ movement and the patriotic movement of Vietnam, preparing theoretically for the birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam. He emphasized: for the revolution to succeed, there must be a genuine revolutionary party leading; The Party must have an advanced ideology, revolution and guiding science, that is the Marxist-Leninist ideology.
He wrote many articles, participated in many presentations at international congresses and conferences, wrote the work “Judgment of the French colonial regime” and organized the newspapers Youth, Workers, and Revolutionary Soldiers. Vanguard, aiming to spread Marxism-Leninism into Vietnam. In 1927, the Propaganda Department of the Union of Oppressed Peoples published the work “Revolutionary Road” (a collection of lectures by Nguyen Ai Quoc at the political training class of the Vietnam Revolutionary Youth Association). . It is the preparation of the political line towards the establishment of the Communist Party of Vietnam. He asserted that in order to win, the revolution must have a leading party, the Party must be strong, the revolution will succeed, and if the person at the helm is stable, the boat will run.
During this time, he also focused on the preparation of the organization and staff. The founder of the Vietnam Revolutionary Youth Association (1925), organized many training courses for cadres in Guangzhou (China) and sent cadres to study at Oriental University (in the former Soviet Union) and Huangpu Army School (China) to train cadres for the Vietnamese revolution.
Thanks to the tireless activities of leader Nguyen Ai Quoc and many senior revolutionary comrades, the conditions for the establishment of the Party were more and more ripe.
At the end of 1929, Vietnamese revolutionaries in communist organizations were aware of the need and urgency to establish a unified Communist Party, ending the division of the communist movement in Vietnam. Nguyen Ai Quoc actively organized and chaired the Party Unification Conference in Hong Kong, China from January 6 to February 7, 1930.
The conference decided to merge Party organizations (Indochina Communist Party, Annam Communist Party, Indochina Communist League) into Communist Party of Vietnam. The conference discussed and approved the documents: Brief Outline, Brief Strategy, Summary Program and Brief Statutes of the Communist Party. Those documents, drafted by Nguyen Ai Quoc and approved by the Party Unification Conference, are the creative application of Marxism-Leninism to the specific conditions of the Vietnamese revolution. The conference approved the appeal of Nguyen Ai Quoc, on behalf of the Communist International and the Communist Party of Vietnam, sent to compatriots and comrades throughout the country on the occasion of the establishment of the Party.
The Conference to unite Communist organizations is meant as a Party founding congress. The documents adopted at the Unification Conference chaired by Nguyen Ai Quoc were the first political platform of the Party.
The 3rd National Congress of the Party has decided to take February 3 of the solar calendar every year as the anniversary of the founding of the Party.
The significance of the founding event of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Party’s first political platform
The conference unites communist party organizations in Vietnam into a single Communist Party – Communist Party of Vietnam – following a correct political line, creating unity of thought, politics and action of the national revolutionary movement, towards the goal of national independence and socialism.
The birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the inevitable result of the national and class struggle, the affirmation of the leadership role of the Vietnamese working class and the Marxist-Leninist ideology for the revolution. Vietnam. The birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam is an extremely important historical event, a very important turning point in the history of the Vietnamese revolution, marking a brilliant milestone on the development path of our nation. .
The birth of the Party is the product of the combination of Marxism-Leninism with the workers’ movement and the patriotic movement of the Vietnamese people, an event associated with the name of Leader Nguyen Ai Quoc – Ho Chi Minh Bright.
The establishment of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the fact that right from its birth, the Party had a political platform that correctly identified the revolutionary path as national liberation in the direction of the proletarian revolution, were the basis for The newly born Communist Party of Vietnam has grasped the banner of leading the Vietnamese revolutionary movement; resolved the crisis of revolutionary line and revolutionary leadership class that occurred in the early twentieth century, opening a new path and development direction for Vietnam. It is this line that is the basis to ensure the gathering of forces and the unity and unity of the whole nation with the same thought and action to carry out the great revolution to win great victories in the future. This is also the basic condition that determines the development direction and steps of the Vietnamese revolution during the past 86 years.
The birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the fact that the Party advocated the Vietnamese revolution was a part of the world revolutionary movement, had enlisted the great support of the world revolution, combining national strength with the power of the times made glorious victories. At the same time, the Vietnamese revolution also actively contributed to the common struggle of the world’s people for peace, national independence and social progress.
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