Chronology shows revolutionary changes through stages. Why say: The Jacobin dictatorship was the culmination of the French bourgeois Revolution?

Detail Category: Lesson 31: French bourgeois revolution at the end of the 18th century

a) Evolution of the French Revolution

Stages Important events

July 14, 1789 to August 10, 1792

(Constitutional Monarchy)

– The uprising of the people of Paris broke the prison of Basti

– August 1789, adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

– September 1791, the Constitution was passed, establishing a constitutional monarchy.

10/8/1792 to 2/6/1793

(The Beginning of the Republic)

-The uprising of the people of Paris overthrew the constitutional monarchy and established the Republic

– King Louis XVI was executed

2/6/1793 to 7/27/1794

(Jacobin-Revolutionary Democratic Dictatorship – The Peak of the Revolution)

– The Jacobin faction implemented many progressive policies

+ Establish revolutionary democracy, punish counter-revolutionaries.

+ Solve the land problem for the people

+ Issuing total mobilization.

– To repel foreign invasion

27/7/1794 to 9/9/1799

(Revolutionary retreat)

– Counter-revolutionary coup, the Jacobin faction was overthrown

– Napoleon’s coup, military dictatorship was established

b) The Jacobin dictatorship was the height of the revolution. Because

– 6.1793, a new Constitution is adopted, declaring France a republic, granting broad democratic rights and all class inequality abolished.

– The Jacobin sect was interested in solving the basic requirements of farmers.

– On August 8, 1793, the National Assembly passed the decree “General mobilization of the whole country” to mobilize the strength of the people throughout the country to fight against “enemies inside and outside” promulgating the law on maximum food prices to limit the number of victims. reserves, and at the same time promulgate the maximum wages of workers.

– Thanks to their policies, the Jacobins were able to quell the rebellions and drive the invaders out of the border. Accomplish national and democratic tasks. Revolution reached its zenith.

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Under what circumstances did the French bourgeois revolution break out?

Detail Category: Lesson 31: French bourgeois revolution at the end of the 18th century

– The economic, political and social contradictions in the heart of the French feudal system became more and more acute, including the contradiction between the third caste (which wanted to abolish feudalism) and the two castes. Priests and Nobles (who want to maintain feudalism)

– The crisis of the national financial system forced Louis XVI to convene the Three-Class Conference on May 5, 1789 at the Palace of Versailles to propose the problem of borrowing money and increasing taxes.

– Disgruntled with the king’s actions, on July 14, 1789, the Parisians attacked the Basti prison – a symbol of feudalism. The French Revolution broke out.

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The theory of the French bourgeois revolution at the end of the 18th century

I. France before the Revolution

1. Economic situation:

– In the middle of the 18th century, French agriculture was still backward, farming tools were very rudimentary (mainly using plows and hoes), so productivity was low. Crop failure and famine often occurred, and people’s lives were very miserable.

– In the field of industry and commerce, the capitalist economy developed but was hindered and restrained by the feudal system. France at that time did not have a unified unit of measurement and currency.

2. Political and social situation

France is still an absolute monarchy led by King Louis XVI.

Totalitarian monarchy: Political system of a country, with a feudal court headed by the king and all power concentrated in the hands of the king. Constitutional monarchy: The political system of a country in which the king’s power is limited by a Constitution set by the bourgeois National Assembly… The king is on the throne, but he does not hold power. real rule.

– There are three castes in society: Priests, Nobles and Third Caste.

+ The clergy and nobles have all the rights in their hands, without paying taxes.

+ Third caste (bourgeoisie, peasants and urban poor):

/ There are no benefits.

/ Have to pay many taxes.

/ Peasants make up 90% of the population, are the poorest class.

Level: Are social classes formed under feudalism, defined by law or custom on social positions, rights and obligations.

=> The conflict between the Third Estate and the clergy and aristocracy became increasingly acute.

=> Under the leadership of the bourgeoisie, the French peasants enthusiastically participated in the revolution to overthrow the feudal system.

3. The struggle on the ideological front:

– Representing the French Enlightenment philosophical movement are: Montesquito, Volte, John Jacques Russo have:

Support the progressive ideas of the bourgeoisie.

+ Vigorously denounce and condemn the tyrannical monarchy of Louis XVI.

– The struggle on the ideological front that spurred the revolution soon broke out.

II. Revolution broke out

The development of the French Bourgeois Revolution took place through three main stages:

1. Constitutional Monarchy

– Time: 14/7/1789 – 10/8/1792.

– The ruling force: constitutional faction (grand bourgeoisie).

The Constitutionalists, the Jordanians, the Jacobins: The Constitutionalist faction consisted of the great bourgeoisie to distinguish it from the Jordanian bourgeoisie, which consisted of the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie, and the Jacobin faction, which consisted of revolutionary democrats with popular support.

– Major Events:

+ August 1789, adopted the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen”.

+ In September 1791, the Constitution was adopted and a constitutional monarchy was established.

+ On August 10, 1792, the constitutional monarchy collapsed.

2. The first step of the republic

– Time: September 21, 1792 – June 2, 1793.

– The ruling force: the Girondin faction (Industrial and commercial bourgeoisie).

– Event:

+ In September 1792, the National Assembly passed the Constitution, establishing the Republic.

On January 21, 1793, King Luis XVI was executed.

+ In June 1793, the people stood up and overthrew the Girondan faction.

3. Jacobin’s Revolutionary Democratic Dictatorship

– Time: 2/6/1793 – 7/27/1794

– The ruling force: Jacobal law.

– Doings:

+ Set up the National Salvation Committee, headed by Rope-spie.

+ Confiscate the lands of the feudal forces and distribute them to the people.

+ Collecting wheat to sell to the people.

+ Promulgating the law of maximum price and maximum correlation law.

– On July 27, 1794, the Jacobin faction was overthrown.

=> The French Revolution ended.

4. Results and historical significance

a. For France

– Overthrow the autocratic monarchy, remove the feudal remnants.

=> Paving the way for the capitalist economy to develop.

– Meet the needs of the masses.

– The masses are the main driving force of the revolution.

=> The French Revolution is the most typical democratic revolution.

b. For the world

– Great influence on nationalist and democratic movements in European countries.

*Limit: to continue to maintain private property, not to completely abolish oppression…

The historical significance of the FIRST bourgeois revolutions

– Establishing the victory of capitalism over feudalism:

– Create conditions to pave the way for the development of new capitalist production (example).

– Show the role of the masses

– Are not radical revolutions, showing that Capitalism has progressive presence but also limitations:

+ Has not fully met the interests of the masses

+ Not completely abolishing feudal exploitation, but only replacing one form of exploitation with another.

+ Even the bourgeoisie in some countries showed a compromise with feudalism

Practice Exercises for Grade 8 History Quiz – Watch now

I. FRANCE BEFORE THE REVOLUTION

1. Economic situation:

– In the middle of the 18th century, French agriculture was still backward, farming tools were very rudimentary (mainly using plows and hoes), so productivity was low. Crop failure and famine often occurred, and people’s lives were very miserable.

– In the field of industry and commerce, the capitalist economy developed but was hindered and restrained by the feudal system. France at that time did not have a unified unit of measurement and currency.

2. Political and social situation

France is still an absolute monarchy led by King Louis XVI.

Totalitarian Monarchy: Political system of a country, with a feudal court headed by the king and all power concentrated in the hands of the king. Constitutional monarchy: The political system of a country in which the king’s power is limited by a Constitution set by the bourgeois National Assembly… The king is on the throne, but he does not hold power. real rule.

– There are three castes in society: Priests, Nobles and Third Caste.

+ The clergy and nobles have all the rights in their hands, without paying taxes.

+ Third caste (bourgeoisie, peasants and urban poor):

/ There are no benefits.

/ Have to pay many taxes.

/ Peasants make up 90% of the population, are the poorest class.

Level: Are social classes formed under feudalism, defined by law or custom on social positions, rights and obligations.

=> The conflict between the Third Estate and the clergy and aristocracy became increasingly acute.

=> Under the leadership of the bourgeoisie, the French peasants enthusiastically participated in the revolution to overthrow the feudal system.

3. The struggle on the ideological front:

– Representing the French Enlightenment philosophical movement are: Montesquito, Volte, John Jacques Russo have:

Support the progressive ideas of the bourgeoisie.

+ Vigorously denounce and condemn the tyrannical monarchy of Louis XVI.

– The struggle on the ideological front that spurred the revolution soon broke out.

II. EXPLOSION REVOLUTION

The development of the French Bourgeois Revolution took place through three main stages:

1. Constitutional Monarchy

– Time: 14/7/1789 – 10/8/1792.

– The ruling force: constitutional faction (grand bourgeoisie).

The Constitutionalists, the Jordanians, the Jacobins: The Constitutionalist faction consisted of the great bourgeoisie to distinguish it from the Jordanian bourgeoisie, which consisted of the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie, and the Jacobin faction, which consisted of revolutionary democrats with popular support.

– Major Events:

+ August 1789, adopted the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen”.

+ In September 1791, the Constitution was adopted and a constitutional monarchy was established.

+ On August 10, 1792, the constitutional monarchy collapsed.

2. The first step of the republic

– Time: September 21, 1792 – June 2, 1793.

– The ruling force: the Girondin faction (Industrial and commercial bourgeoisie).

– Event:

+ In September 1792, the National Assembly passed the Constitution, establishing the Republic.

On January 21, 1793, King Luis XVI was executed.

+ In June 1793, the people stood up and overthrew the Girondan faction.

3. Jacobin’s Revolutionary Democratic Dictatorship

– Time: 2/6/1793 – 7/27/1794

– The ruling force: Jacobal law.

– Doings:

+ Set up the National Salvation Committee, headed by Rope-spie.

+ Confiscate the lands of the feudal forces and distribute them to the people.

+ Collecting wheat to sell to the people.

+ Promulgating the law of maximum price and maximum correlation law.

– On July 27, 1794, the Jacobin faction was overthrown.

=> The French Revolution ended.

4. Results and historical significance

a. For France

– Overthrow the autocratic monarchy, remove the feudal remnants.

=> Paving the way for the capitalist economy to develop.

– Meet the needs of the masses.

– The masses are the main driving force of the revolution.

=> The French Revolution is the most typical democratic revolution.

b. For the world

– Great influence on nationalist and democratic movements in European countries.

*Limit: to continue to maintain private property, not to completely abolish oppression…

The historical significance of the FIRST bourgeois revolutions

– Establishing the victory of capitalism over feudalism:

– Create conditions to pave the way for the development of new capitalist production (example).

– Show the role of the masses

– Are not radical revolutions, showing that Capitalism has progressive presence but also limitations:

+ Has not fully met the interests of the masses

+ Not completely abolishing feudal exploitation, but only replacing one form of exploitation with another.

+ Even the bourgeoisie in some countries showed a compromise with feudalism

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